By M. Mayer, B. Meyer
Read or Download [Article] Group Epitope Mapping by Saturation Transfer Difference NMR To Identify Segments of a Ligand in Direct Contact with a Protein Receptor PDF
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Extra info for [Article] Group Epitope Mapping by Saturation Transfer Difference NMR To Identify Segments of a Ligand in Direct Contact with a Protein Receptor
Besides the electric ﬁeld F a temperature gradient appears and gives rise to transport of carriers. If the electric ﬁeld and the temperature gradient are taken parallel to the x axis, the current density in this direction can be written as Z e @f0 @T 3 d k: ð125Þ jx ¼ Fx À 3 k v2x 8 @T @x For a degenerate electron system at low temperature, ∂f /∂T differs from 0 only close to the Fermi energy. This can be used when converting the k space integral into an integral over the particle energy. One obtains for an isotropic parabolic dispersion relation E(k) jx ¼ Fx À 1 @T e ðEF Þ 2F cV ðT Þ ; 3 @x ð126Þ where τ(EF) is the relaxation time at EF, vF the Fermi velocity and cV(T ) the electronic speciﬁc heat.
Thermal motion of the crystal atoms leads to a decrease of the intensities in diffraction experiments compared to those of the rigid lattice. This decrease is quantiﬁed by the Debye-Waller factor which for the diffraction peak with reciprocal lattice vector G is deﬁned by 1 DG ðT Þ ¼ expðÀ jGj2 u2 Þ 3 ð92Þ where u2 is the thermal average of the square displacement of an atom from its equilibrium position. This mean square displacement carrying the information on the temperature dependence is quoted in the tables as the Debye-Waller exponent B ¼ 82 u ðsÞ2 where α refers to the Cartesian coordinate and s to the atom in the unit cell.
If in addition to the electric ﬁeld F a homogeneous magnetic ﬁeld B is present, the carriers move under the inﬂuence of the Lorentz force and the drift velocity follows from mÃ vD ¼ q ðF þ vD Â BÞ: ð120Þ The current density (for electrons) jn = − enyD can be expressed again in the form of Ohm’s law (Eq. c Þ with the cyclotron frequency ωc = eB/m* and σ0 = ne2τ/m*. e. perpendicular to the applied electric and magnetic ﬁelds. As a consequence, in a ﬁnite sample an electric ﬁeld is built up in y direction.
[Article] Group Epitope Mapping by Saturation Transfer Difference NMR To Identify Segments of a Ligand in Direct Contact with a Protein Receptor by M. Mayer, B. Meyer