By Bikramjit Basu, Dhirendra S. Katti, Ashok Kumar
Chapter 1 basics of Biomaterials and Biocompatibility (pages 1–18): Bikramjit Basu and Shekhar Nath
Chapter 2 basics of Hydroxyapatite and similar Calcium Phosphates (pages 19–52): Racquel Zapanta LeGeros, Atsuo Ito, Kunio Ishikawa, Toshiro Sakae and John P. LeGeros
Chapter three fabrics for Orthopedic functions (pages 53–100): Shekhar Nath and Bikramjit Basu
Chapter four The Micro Macroporous Biphasic Calcium Phosphate idea for Bone Reconstruction and Tissue Engineering (pages 101–141): man Daculsi, Franck Jegoux and Pierre Layrolle
Chapter five technology and know-how built-in Titanium Dental Implant structures (pages 143–177): Yoshiki Oshida and Elif Bahar Tuna
Chapter 6 Injectable Hydrogels as Biomaterials (pages 179–203): Lakshmi S. Nair, Cato T. Laurencin and Mayank Tandon
Chapter 7 Nanomaterials for more suitable Orthopedic and Bone Tissue Engineering functions (pages 205–241): Lijie Zhang, Sirinrath Sirivisoot, Ganesh Balasundaram and Thomas J. Webster
Chapter eight advent to Processing of Biomaterials (pages 243–276): Dhirendra S. Katti, Shaunak Pandya, Meghali Bora and Rakesh Mahida
Chapter nine Laser Processing of Orthopedic Biomaterials (pages 277–322): Rajarshi Banerjee and Soumya Nag
Chapter 10 Functionally Graded All Ceramic HIP Joint (pages 323–356): Omer Van der Biest, man Anne, Kim Vanmeensel and Jef Vleugels
Chapter eleven clinical units in response to Bioinspired Ceramics (pages 357–409): Pio Gonzalez, Julian Martinez?Fernandez, Antonio R. de Arellano?Lopez and Mrityunjay Singh
Chapter 12 Ionomer Glasses: layout and Characterization (pages 411–433): Artemis Stamboulis and Fei Wang
Chapter thirteen Designing Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering (pages 435–497): Neha Arya, Poonam Sharma and Dhirendra S. Katti
Chapter 14 layout of Supermacroporous Biomaterials through Gelation at Subzero Temperatures—Cryogelation (pages 499–531): Fatima M. Plieva, Ashok Kumar, Igor Yu. Galaev and Bo Mattiasson
Chapter 15 Biomaterial functions (pages 533–550): Ashok Kumar, Akshay Srivastava and period Jain
Chapter sixteen Cell?Based Nanocomposites and Biomolecules for Bone Tissue Engineering (pages 551–588): Michelle Ngiam, Susan Liao, Casey Chan and S. Ramakrishna
Chapter 17 Orthopedic Interface Tissue Engineering: development the Bridge to built-in Musculoskeletal Tissue platforms (pages 589–611): Helen H. Lu, Kristen L. Moffat and Jeffrey P. Spalazzi
Chapter 18 Cells of the fearful approach and electric Stimulation (pages 613–642): Carlos Atico Ariza and Surya okay. Mallapragada
Chapter 19 Placental Umbilical wire Blood: a real Blood replacement (pages 643–662): Niranjan Bhattacharya
Chapter 20 Supported telephone Mimetic Monolayers and their Blood Compatibility (pages 663–676): ok. Kaladhar and Chandra P. Sharma
Chapter 21 Titanium Nitride and Diamond Like Carbon Coatings for Cardiovascular functions (pages 677–705): C. V. Muraleedharan and G. S. Bhuvaneshwar
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Extra info for Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, Processing, and Applications
Besides evaluation of frictional and wear resistance properties, the wear debris particles need to be analyzed in terms of size/ size distribution and chemistry. This analysis is critical as far as asceptic loosening STEPS FOR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF BIOMATERIALS 15 or osteolysis is concerned. In addition, in vitro dissolution tests assess the weight change or deposition of any mineralized phase (such as CaP-rich) on the surface of biomaterial. In the absence of prescribed ISO guidelines, all the above mentioned tests are carried out in simulated body fluid solution, such as Ringer’s solution or Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS).
3. 2 Carbonate Incorporation. Early studies on carbonate-containing apatite were prompted by the need to understand the nature of carbonate incorporation in biologic apatite (particularly bone and tooth mineral). Such studies demonstrated that carbonate (CO3)2− can substitute in the apatite structure either for the (OH)− or the (PO4)3− group, referred to as Type A or Type B substitution, respectively . The first synthetic carbonate-substituted apatite with Type A substitution prepared at high temperatures (1000 °C) was first reported by Elliott  and Bonel .
5) . 4). Solubility of the apatite increases as the amount of carbonate in the apatite increases regardless of the type of substitution: Type A  or Type B . 9 . X-ray structure analysis using flux-grown carbonate apatite single crystals revealed that planar CO3 in CO3-for-PO4 substitution are located close to the sloping oxygen triangle consisting of the O(1), O(2) and O(3) of the PO4 group in hydroxyapatite [25,26] confirming earlier inferences from polarized IR study . The sloping angle that is defined by the angle between the normal to the CO3 plane and the c-axis varied depending on the Na-substitution of adjacent Ca site.
Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, Processing, and Applications by Bikramjit Basu, Dhirendra S. Katti, Ashok Kumar