By Teresa J. Bandosz
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation offers a entire precis of the environmental functions of activated carbons. which will comprehend the elimination of contaminants and pollution on activated carbons, the theoretical bases of adsorption phenomena are mentioned. the results of pore constitution and floor chemistry also are addressed from either technology and engineering views. every one bankruptcy presents examples of genuine purposes with an emphasis at the position of the carbon floor in adsorption or reactive adsorption. the sensible facets addressed during this ebook conceal the huge spectrum of purposes from air and water cleansing and effort garage to conflict gasoline removing and biomedical applications.
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Extra resources for Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation
At the beginning of the 1980s, interest became focused on developing ACF by the steam activation of conventional carbon fibres (CF), a fibril material whose main application was to reinforce polymer matrix composites. Poly-acrylo-nitril (PAN) based ACF was first produced by Toho Rayon Co. (Japan). At the end of the 1980s, interest centred on developing ACF from inexpensive precursors such as pitch based carbon fibres. In summary, activated carbon fibres are produced, mainly, by the thermal activation of carbonized (and of course stabilized) carbon fibres.
This section will describe the chemical activation process with the most commonly used reagents: zinc chloride, phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide. 1. Zinc Chloride Activation The zinc chloride process was the principal method of chemical activation up to 1970, and it is still used in China. The preferred precursors are those with a high amount of volatiles (and oxygen content) such as lignocellulosic materials. Wood, therefore, is the most common precursor, although other materials, such as ground olive stones, are also used, Low recovery efficiencies, corrosion problems, the presence of residual zinc in the carbon, and the need for stringent control of plant emissions have contributed to their displacement by phosphoric acid.
The procedure must be performed in this order, otherwise the binders would block the entire pore network. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) Carbon fibres Broken GAC Shaped GAC Carbon cloths Carbon-integral monoliths monoliths Carbon-coated monoliths Carbon membrane supported on stainless steel Fig. 21. Different forms of carbon adsorbents In the case of chemical activation, the reasons for processing the shaped GAC is that the direct kiln product is dusty and covered with a lot of powder, even when a granular material is fed in.
Activated Carbon Surfaces in Environmental Remediation by Teresa J. Bandosz