By Owen Chadwick
May a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the reasons and effects of the top of the old Papal country, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here below assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never merely from Italy, yet from liberal routine in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish matters. If a united Italy was once to be completed, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the international" instead of to aim to steer it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly elements of Catholic religion. while they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. hence, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority will be way more centralized in Rome.
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Extra resources for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
He wrote one more book on this part of his life— a historical description of the visit to Rome, Affaires de Rome. It is surprising in that it has no rancour. It is the only calm book he ever wrote. But he made it very clear that he was no longer a servant of the Pope; and he passed among the working leaders of the radical French left, who at first did not trust him. His close disciples submitted to the condemnation, without exception. The way this was done by Lacordaire and Montalembert pained him.
Therefore it has a duty to restrain, not only the immoral, but persons who promote immorality. Since everyone is agreed (so he could then assume) that religious error leads to immorality because Gregory XVI 25 it pulls away from the truth that is the cause and safeguard of keeping God's law, the State must stop the promotion of religious error. To provide legally that speakers or writers shall be free to promote what is not true, or to utter words that declare racial prejudice, or paederasty, or pornography, or adultery, or murder not to be sins, cannot be what God demands of any State.
If the Austrian emperor or the Spanish king interfered with the bishops or the pastoral system they behaved only as good Catholics expected, and they had so behaved for centuries. If the British government treated Irish Catholics similarly, or the Dutch government its Catholics, the pope could appeal to justice and the freedoms of the Church against interference from outside. And the local Catholics could also appeal to those ideas of tolerance and liberty which their Protestant rule now accepted as the ideal of their State.
A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church) by Owen Chadwick